Volume 20, Issue 2 p. 1982-2014
COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETY

Reviewing the world's edible mushroom species: A new evidence-based classification system

Huili Li

Huili Li

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

East and Central Asia Regional Office, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kunming, Yunnan, China

Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Yang Tian

Yang Tian

College of Food Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Nelson Menolli Jr

Corresponding Author

Nelson Menolli Jr

Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo, Brazil

Departamento de Ciências da Natureza e Matemática (DCM), Subárea de Biologia (SAB), Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo (IFSP), São Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence

Peter E. Mortimer, Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Eric Boa, Institute of Biology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Email: [email protected];

Jun Sheng, Key Laboratory for Agro-biodiversity and Pest Control of Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

Email: [email protected];

Jianchu Xu, Center for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Nelson Menolli Jr, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botònica, Av. Miguel Stefano 3687, Êgua Funda, São Paulo, SP 04301-012, Brazil.

Email: [email protected]

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Lei Ye

Lei Ye

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

East and Central Asia Regional Office, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kunming, Yunnan, China

Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Samantha C. Karunarathna

Samantha C. Karunarathna

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

East and Central Asia Regional Office, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kunming, Yunnan, China

Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Jesus Perez-Moreno

Jesus Perez-Moreno

Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Texcoco, México

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Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman

Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308 Australia

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Md Harunur Rashid

Md Harunur Rashid

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308 Australia

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Pheng Phengsintham

Pheng Phengsintham

Biology Department, National University of Laos, Lao PDR

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Leela Rizal

Leela Rizal

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Taiga Kasuya

Taiga Kasuya

Department of Biology, Keio University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Young Woon Lim

Young Woon Lim

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

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Arun Kumar Dutta

Arun Kumar Dutta

Department of Botany, West Bengal State University, Barasat, West Bengal, India

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Abdul Nasir Khalid

Abdul Nasir Khalid

Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

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Le Thanh Huyen

Le Thanh Huyen

Department of Toxicology and Environmental Monitoring, Faculty of Environment, Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment, Tu Liem North District, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Marilen Parungao Balolong

Marilen Parungao Balolong

Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Manila, the Philippines

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Gautam Baruah

Gautam Baruah

Balipara Tract and Frontier Foundation, Guwahati, Assam, India

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Sumedha Madawala

Sumedha Madawala

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

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Naritsada Thongklang

Naritsada Thongklang

Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand

School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand

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Kevin D. Hyde

Kevin D. Hyde

Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand

School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand

Mushroom Research Foundation, Chiang Mai, Thailand

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Paul M. Kirk

Paul M. Kirk

Biodiversity Informatics and Spatial Analysis, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Surrey, UK

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Jianchu Xu

Corresponding Author

Jianchu Xu

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

East and Central Asia Regional Office, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kunming, Yunnan, China

Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Correspondence

Peter E. Mortimer, Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Eric Boa, Institute of Biology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Email: [email protected];

Jun Sheng, Key Laboratory for Agro-biodiversity and Pest Control of Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

Email: [email protected];

Jianchu Xu, Center for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Nelson Menolli Jr, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botònica, Av. Miguel Stefano 3687, Êgua Funda, São Paulo, SP 04301-012, Brazil.

Email: [email protected]

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Jun Sheng

Corresponding Author

Jun Sheng

Key Laboratory for Agro-biodiversity and Pest Control of Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China

Correspondence

Peter E. Mortimer, Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Eric Boa, Institute of Biology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Email: [email protected];

Jun Sheng, Key Laboratory for Agro-biodiversity and Pest Control of Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

Email: [email protected];

Jianchu Xu, Center for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Nelson Menolli Jr, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botònica, Av. Miguel Stefano 3687, Êgua Funda, São Paulo, SP 04301-012, Brazil.

Email: [email protected]

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Eric Boa

Corresponding Author

Eric Boa

Institute of Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK

Correspondence

Peter E. Mortimer, Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Eric Boa, Institute of Biology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Email: [email protected];

Jun Sheng, Key Laboratory for Agro-biodiversity and Pest Control of Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

Email: [email protected];

Jianchu Xu, Center for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Nelson Menolli Jr, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botònica, Av. Miguel Stefano 3687, Êgua Funda, São Paulo, SP 04301-012, Brazil.

Email: [email protected]

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Peter E. Mortimer

Corresponding Author

Peter E. Mortimer

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Correspondence

Peter E. Mortimer, Centre for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Eric Boa, Institute of Biology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Email: [email protected];

Jun Sheng, Key Laboratory for Agro-biodiversity and Pest Control of Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

Email: [email protected];

Jianchu Xu, Center for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Email: [email protected];

Nelson Menolli Jr, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botònica, Av. Miguel Stefano 3687, Êgua Funda, São Paulo, SP 04301-012, Brazil.

Email: [email protected]

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First published: 18 February 2021
Citations: 89

Abstract

Wild mushrooms are a vital source of income and nutrition for many poor communities and of value to recreational foragers. Literature relating to the edibility of mushroom species continues to expand, driven by an increasing demand for wild mushrooms, a wider interest in foraging, and the study of traditional foods. Although numerous case reports have been published on edible mushrooms, doubt and confusion persist regarding which species are safe and suitable to consume. Case reports often differ, and the evidence supporting the stated properties of mushrooms can be incomplete or ambiguous. The need for greater clarity on edible species is further underlined by increases in mushroom-related poisonings. We propose a system for categorizing mushroom species and assigning a final edibility status. Using this system, we reviewed 2,786 mushroom species from 99 countries, accessing 9,783 case reports, from over 1,100 sources. We identified 2,189 edible species, of which 2,006 can be consumed safely, and a further 183 species which required some form of pretreatment prior to safe consumption or were associated with allergic reactions by some. We identified 471 species of uncertain edibility because of missing or incomplete evidence of consumption, and 76 unconfirmed species because of unresolved, differing opinions on edibility and toxicity. This is the most comprehensive list of edible mushrooms available to date, demonstrating the huge number of mushrooms species consumed. Our review highlights the need for further information on uncertain and clash species, and the need to present evidence in a clear, unambiguous, and consistent manner.